2019 Volume 17 Pages 25-40
The idea of “Multi-capital system,” a national system to establish multiple “To” or “Kyo,” was first proposed in 1967. This opinion has been regarded as self-evident and its rationale has hardly ever been questioned. However, its interpretation has rather been confusing. As several “Miya” had coexisted, “Kyo” had accordingly coexisted, too, since a “Kyo” is a form of a “Miya” with its extended outskirt included. When, however, several “Kyo” coexisted, the place where the Emperor reigned was specifically termed “Koto,” instead of regular “To,” as a means to emphasize his presence. Considering the transition of “Kyo” and “To” from this point of view, the coexistence of capitals is nowhere to be found in history except for the failed attempt by Emperor Tenmu’s in his later years, nor is there any historical materials indicating it to have taken place. The idea of “Multi-capital system” had been attempted for a brief period of time in vain during Tenmu’s era, and was succeeded by no one thereafter.