Pathogenic microorganisms and virus are components of ecosystems, constructing endemic inter-relationships with each specific host species thorough the co-evolutional history. The spill-over of the pathogens from natural habitats into other area will cause encounters between the pathogen and new hosts which have never evolved the immunity or resistance, and will result in rapid spread of “emerging infectious disease (EID)”.In the midst of accelerating globalization, human and societies have come to be the targets of the infectious disease caused by pathogens spilled over from the nature. At this very moment, the newest EID, SARS-CoV-2, has spread over the world causing serious damages on the human health and economy. During the social interest is growing for the pandemic risks of EID, it has been discussed that the destruction of biodiversity and environmental change by human over exploitation from nature is deeply related the EID pandemic. In order to control further EID risks after SARS-CoV-2, we human should change our ever social and economic system to be more sustainable considering the significance of localities.
Efficient reverse logistics is an important issue to contribute to CO2 reduction and securing of appropriate processing. In this study, the transport efficiency improvement measures were examined using the actual data of the industrial waste disposal contractors. Specifically, we considered increasing the size of transportation, including modal shift, by increasing the number of transportation lots, and as a result, could reduce costs by 28.1%.
Public infrastructures require timely investments in maintaining and upgrading the assets to maintain the quality of the service they provide. In Japan, the need for such investment is increasing as many of the infrastructures were constructed in 1970s, which puts them from 21 % to 63 % out of their service life in 15 years. To help identify priority projects we measure the preference of the residents on the services various infrastructures provides across the nation. Using the mixed logit model, we find that a marginal willingness to pay for a decrease of infectious diseases is about 23 yen per household and month. Our results provide the insights for implementing effective maintenance with a limited budget.
Renewable energy is expected as a way of the small-scale dispersed generation system. The urban area is located far from large power facilities while it has a large population and energy demand. In the urban area, the area size of space for the possibility of installing wind power plants or large photovoltaic power generation systems is smaller than that of the suburban area. In that kind of background, the rooftop type photovoltaic power generation system (rooftop type PV) is expected as one choice of renewable energy resources. In this research, the model for the estimation of the potential of the amount of installation of the rooftop type PV is clarified by utilized of several published spatial distribution data. Sixty sample districts are selected for analysis from the residential zoning districts in Nagoya city. At first, the number of PV installed rooftops are surveyed in all sample districts. Second, the correlation between the number of PVs per one building of each district and the spatial scale of buildings, the population, the amount of solar radiation, the change of land-use type, and the environmentally aware are analyzed. Finally, using the above indicators, the multiple regression model for the calculation of the amount of estimated value of rooftop type PV on each district is created. As a result of the multiple regression analysis using the stepwise method, the regression coefficient of the amount of solar radiation, the number of new construction buildings, landuse change of residential to industrial land-use is selected as useful indicators are selected.
Preserving dry stone walls on agricultural land is one of the important factors in achieving sustainable development. The EU has provided substantial financial support based on that philosophy. Therefore, we summarize the features and issues of the EU's subsidy system for the restoration of dry stone walls and the way it is used in practice, using the Liguria Vernazza in Italy as a case study. After that, we organized the characteristics of three subsidy systems for the restoration of dry stone walls in Japan and examined the way of public subsidy for dry stone walls in Japan from the five points, referring to the EU system. As a result, we discussed the following issues. Firstly, The problems that can be caused by the framework of the system. Secondly, the problem that the requirement of receiving the subsidy is after dry stone walls are collapsed. Thirdly, the reasons and standards that should be limited to dry stone walls, the securing of materials. Fourth, the reasons why the builder should be a farmer and the way of technique succession. Fifth, the simplification of the procedure and the support of the procedure.