Journal of the City Planning Institute of Japan
Online ISSN : 2185-0593
Print ISSN : 0916-0647
ISSN-L : 0916-0647
Current issue
Journal of the City Planning Institute of Japan
Showing 1-50 articles out of 168 articles from the selected issue
  • Case study on Izu City, Shizuoka Prefecture
    Yoshiaki Murakami, Noriko Akita
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 191-196
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    This study aims to give suggestions of the possibility and issue of Specific Usage Limitation Area as local land use control method through the case study at Izu City, Shizuoka Prefecture. This system was adopted in 2017 as an alternative to land use regulation following the abolition of the Area Division system. Most of the area of Izu City is mountains, and the habitable area is limited. Therefore, the zoning based on the Specific Usage Limitation Area worked properly. As a result, residential function was induced to the new core area. However, it became clear that there are issues in terms of living environment such as insufficient sidewalk.

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  • Mizuki Hada, Junichiro Asano
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 197-204
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    The purpose of this research is to clarify the actual situation of the reorganization of public elementary and junior high schools in local city from the perspective of city planning, especially focussing on examples in non-urbanized areas. Some of the findings obtained are shown below.1) 70% of the reorganization of public elementary and junior high schools in local cities took place in non-urbanized areas. 2) Many of the schools at the bases of urban master plan were set up in non-urbanized areas. 3) There are two patterns in the relationship between the reorganization of schools and base setting of bases. Firstly, centering on facilities that support daily life sustainability, the reorganized school will be added to some of the facilities in the base area to serve as a base. Second one is to use the basic nature of the school to form the basics on a small level.

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  • How the Projects Responded to the "Engagements" in "label écoQuartier"
    Tomoki Hosaka, Akito Murayama, Rikutaro Manabe
    Type: An Article on Planning, Design and Project, A Report on Planning, A Report of Survey
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 205-212
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Recently, in order to deal with sustainability issues in cities, district-scale development is drawing attention. In France, a certification system called “label écoQuartier” was established in 2012, and the number of certified cases is increasing throughout the country. This study examines how the urban form and the environmental techniques were selected and combined in French sustainable district “écoquartier” projects, by analyzing the measures to respond to the “engagements” in “label écoQuartier”. Through the analysis, it was recognized that implanting plural techniques into the public park is assumed to be important. Moreover, there was a certain similarity in urban density in the three projects, which implies that there is an appropriate density for sustainable districts.

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  • Masanori Okada, Takehito Ujihara, Akiko Ushio, Yuki Ohata
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 213-219
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    For Okayama City residents, the survey subjects, this study based on Maslow’s hierarchy of needs clarified characteristics of visitors in terms of motivation for visiting the city center. Results of analyses revealed the following points.1) Results confirmed ‘non-spiritual needs’ and ‘spiritual/material needs’ as motivations for visiting a city center.2) Each type of need, in addition to age and gender, affects the choice of transportation mode used. Specifically, visitors with ‘spiritual/material needs’ tend to choose public transportation. Visitors with ‘non-spiritual needs’ use non-public transportation.3) Among the motivations for visiting related with spiritual needs, a tendency to use public transportation system is low in ‘belongingness and love needs’, but is strong in ‘esteem needs’ and ‘self-fulfillment needs’.

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  • Case at the district including various developing period of residential area in Takaoka city, Toyama
    Ryohsuke Kanoh, Yosuke Mano
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 220-227
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    In this study, we considered way of attracting residence to the old central area becoming perforation to narrow frontage sites in Takaoka city. As a result, there are two types of young generation to choose residential location, one is moving from out of junior high school district, and the other is moving or succeeding within the district. The rate of these types in each town differs with developing period of residential area. Especially, in the old central area, we clarified the tendency about the succession to residence thorough arranging several sites for the purpose of living together or near with relatives. Arranging several sites with vacant space takes on role that make new choice about lifestyle and land use, and help handing over residence to next generation. For promoting sustainable residential area, it is hoped to attract young generation from out of junior high school district with utilizing this tendency.

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  • A Case Study in Takao-dai Area of Hachioji City
    Ryuichi Soga, Noriko Akita
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 228-234
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    This study focuses on the suburban housing estates in municipalities aiming for an intensive urban structure. This study aims to understand the actual living environment and to clarify Settlement Consciousness to obtain suggestions for measures to ensure that residents will continue to live there in the future. The target site is Takao?dai area of Hachioji City, where Location Normalization Plan (draft) indicates that the town will be maintained in its current state. For that purpose, we analyzed statistics and the resident's consideration survey and conducted interview surveys. As a result, it was suggested that even in the housing estate that is not very convenient and not expected improvement in the living environment in urban planning, residents feel comfortable living if there is a good relationship with others and enough green environment.

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  • Based on analysis of public open space developed as part of redevelopment in the CBD of Tokyo
    Dan Nakaoka, Haruhiko Goto, Shu Yamamura
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 235-242
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    In recent years, mental fatigue among workers is a serious problem, and there is concern that accumulation of such fatigue can impair health. Due to the growing interest in working environments that support workers' health and productivity, research has focused on improving environments of internal office spaces, but there has been insufficient discussion of external environments. This study focused on open spaces in business districts to clarify effects of open spaces on user's mental fatigue and to describe environmental characteristics of walking spaces that reduce mental fatigue. The results showed that walking in the open spaces by the office development reduced mental fatigue, unlike walking in the ordinary business district.

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  • Daiki Matsubara, Toshiya Matsukawa, Bumpei Nakade
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 243-249
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    This study aims to clarify the conditions of time parking in local cities trying to revitalize the central city area, and to propose the way of time parking for both municipality and users to revitalize the area.We find the following from questionnaire and interviews with local governments and parking lot users. 1) Only about 20% of local governments know both the location of parking lots and the number of parkable cars. 2) Although there is a difference depending on the intended use, it is effective to maintain the parking lot within 300m from each destination to the parking lot, especially 100 to 200m for private use. 3) Since parking lot measures alone will not increase the number of visitors, parking lot measures combined with public facilities or with multi-purpose commercial facilities by the introduction of private vitality should be implemented when increase of visitors are expected.

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  • Focusing on a background that a Housing Development was excluded from Residence Guidance Area
    Shono Sakurai, Hiroki Ogawa
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 250-257
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Local housing development reproduction project was founded in 2019 to reproduce the housing developments where the population has reduced due to the decline of communities and the aging of residents. On the other hand, the Location Normalization Plan has been formulated until now in many local governments. However, other studies revealed the existence of the housing development excluded from Residence Guidance Area. Therefore, this study was aimed for that it got knowledge about a method to manage the housing development by the plan. Specifically, it investigated the handling of the housing development in the plan. And it performed an investigation and the hearing investigation into plan and clarified the factor that a housing development produced and a future policy.

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  • Atsuki Sera, Shino Miura, Fumihiko Nakamura, Shinji Tanaka, Ryo Ariyos ...
    Type: An Article on Planning, Design and Project, A Report on Planning, A Report of Survey
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 258-265
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    These days, “Transit Street” is being advocated in the USA. Transit Street means “the street which is prioritized for public transportation” and is mainly designed for public transportation and pedestrian. In contrast to Transit Mall, private cars also can go through Transit Street, however, some devices make them inconvenient. Some cities and associations already have published guidelines for Transit Street. In Japan, there’s no concept like Transit Street, nevertheless, there’s a case similar to Transit Street. The objective of this study is to suggest a guideline for public transportation prioritized streets in Japan. Then, the history, definition, and spatial elements of Transit Street and Japanese cases are reported. After that, guidelines of Japanese Transit Street are shown referring to Transit Street in the USA.

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  • Case study of Kumamoto city
    Tatsuya Tanizaki, Takuro Inohae
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 266-273
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    In the future, urban decline is concerned because of various issues such as aging and population decline, therefore it is important to increase the convenience of mobility and the accessibility of many living services. Also a location normalization plan has been enforced in 2014 and this plan is a compactness policy that aims to be more desirable city for looking after 20 years. Therefore, in this study, we made estimate the future population and carried out the simulation of the compactness by population aggregation. Then, we evaluated accessibility by scenario of compaction for Kumamoto city, which has a location normalization plan. As a result, it became clear that the simulated scenario of compactness can maintain the current level in terms of accessibility.

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  • Development and improvement of areas based on area data
    Takumi Yoshihara, Takahiro Tanaka
    Type: An Article on Planning, Design and Project, A Report on Planning, A Report of Survey
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 274-281
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Many densely built-up areas remain throughout Japan. Such areas have come to present difficulties from perspectives of disaster prevention. Therefore, their immediate development and improvement are necessary. Although uniform redesign such as widening and fireproofing has been implemented in many densely built-up areas, regional characteristics must be considered for planning. Therefore, this study was conducted to categorize densely built-up areas according to their locational and physical characteristics as a step toward redesign of densely built-up areas. Target areas were extracted according to their respective ratios of noncombustible area and building density. Categorizing produced several classifications according to locational and physical characteristics, revealing salient issues and redesign directions for the categories.

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  • Hirokazu Nagano
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 282-287
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    In recent years, in Japan, the problem of unoccupied houses due to the declining population and declining birthrate and aging population has been widely addressed. By enforcement of "special measures law about promotion of measures such as unoccupied houses" in 2014, administration, NPO, inhabitants organization work on this unoccupied house problem in city planning and town development, but are systematically removed and utilized It can be seen that it is difficult to say that the is being planned. On the other hand, as a profession dealing with real estate registration, judicial scriveners and others have a lot of knowledge about land for these issues, but in the approach to unidentified land, issues such as simply not being able to proceed It is also a situation in which there are a lot of people. Based on these circumstances, this paper organizes the situation based on a survey of the judicial scrivener's degree of interest in town development and measures for vacant houses, and whether or not they want to put it into practice. The problem was clarified.

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  • Keita Nakashima, Takehito Ujihara, Kyohei Oda
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 288-294
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    We developed a method for prevention of vacant houses as a target by applying knowledge of attitude–behavior change research. Then we verified the results for a residential area in Okayama City as a target. Specifically, we distributed leaflets to owners of detached houses to inform them about benefits for prevention of vacant houses. We also administered a questionnaire survey of the considered future uses of houses. The study yielded the following findings.1) Based on this study approach, 10% of respondents reported behavior changes and 44% of respondents reported attitude changes.2) Contents of behavior changes were to write an ending note and a testament, to confirm registration, and to collect information about transfer such as inheritance.

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  • Case study of Yokohama city Machi-bushin Developments
    Jangshik Yoon
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 295-302
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    This study aims to clarify the possibility of sustainable utilization and activity on vacant land and vacant house (VLH) by local citizens from case study of Yokohama city Machi-bushin development. As a result, from proposals until now, we revealed that changes of proposers from local communities to themed organizations, projects from improvements of park and plaza to establishments of activity bases, and proposal space from public space to private space through the utilization of VLH. Moreover, as the merit of VLH for proposers, the location was more important than economic efficiency, and proposers needed supports of advice about related systems and restrictions for utilization of VLH and information about vacant public space in the local region. Finally, we clarified that active cooperation with other local citizens and administrative organs is important for sustainable utilization and activity on VLH.

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  • Case Study of Mobile Retailers in Urban and Suburban Areas
    Yuri Akizuki, Rikutaro Manabe, Akito Murayama, Hideki Koizumi
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 303-310
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Recently, the topic of mobile retailer is discussed mainly in two contexts. One is self-driving stores supported by autonomous driving technology, and the other is mobile retailers as support systems for disadvantaged shoppers. In this research, the gap between the two contexts is pointed out and surveys on four advanced examples of mobile retailers are conducted focusing on how urban spaces are used. Through the research, it is found that 1) mobile retailers use various types of spaces as stop points depending on the geographical and social situations of the area, 2) policies for deciding the stop points varies by projects, and some of them have unique schemes, and 3) mobile retailers change the characters of urban spaces to temporary community places.

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  • From the points of view of urban infrastructure projects and farm management
    Tatsuyuki Kimura, Rikutaro Manabe, Akito Murayama
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 311-316
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    In recent years, urban-rural mixture has been regarded as valuable in Japan, but little is known about various spatial patterns of the urban-rural mixture. In this study, in order to set visions for the mixed areas conforming to each situation, the formation processes of different mixed patterns are analyzed in a detailed scale and the spatial characteristics of areas are examined through interviews with farmers and an examination of farmers’ registration certificates. These analyses are based on two contrasting points of view. One is farmland management of farmers, such as diversion, sale or lease at the time of inheritance. The other is urban infrastructure projects such as land readjustment or arterial roads in urban planning.

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  • A study on Ooizumi district, Nerima, Tokyo
    Yoshiyuki Ishizuka, Yonggeun Lee, Toshio Otsuki, Hideki Koizumi
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 317-322
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Farmlands in urbanization promotion areas are being reconsidered for reservation in multiple policies. In this study, we focused on farmland conversion in terms of public transport convenience and demographic structure. We found that the conversion rate of farmlands to apartment buildings was high in areas with low transportation accessibility. The case study indicates that the conversion of farmlands in the area outside walking distance from the nearest railway station to a residential area led to an increase in the population and the number of families with children. Additionally, areas converted to apartment buildings increased the number of families with preschool children. On the other hand, the influence of farmland conversion on population by generation is limited in the wider area outside the walking distance radius.

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  • Yuki Hoshi, Toshiya Matsukawa, Akira Maruoka, Bumpei Nakade
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 323-329
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    This study aims to obtain knowledge about the land use system of the remaining farmland in the population-declining city, based on the process of the Remaining Farmland Agglomerations and the future land use policies. We clarify the following. 1)Farmland Agglomerations is shaped by urban sprawl at designated Zoning Area in anticipation of population growth. 2)Farmland Agglomerations hinders maintenance of population density in Urban Promotion Area and new urban development. 3)The measures of Local authority for this issue is promotion of residence by designating a Residential Promotion Area. On the other hand, there is no administrative utility for designation of Garden Residential Zone. We consider that it is possible to population density maintenance and expand the Zoning Area by designating the remaining farmland as Garden Residential Zone and treating there as non-habitable land, but it is necessary for the agricultural administration to amend the law to change the treatment of farmland in Garden Residential Zone.

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  • Practice record of public-private partnership activity in Koryo Town, Nara Prefecture
    Ikuko Omi, Toru Nakayama
    Type: An Article on Planning, Design and Project, A Report on Planning, A Report of Survey
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 330-337
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Farmers are decreasing in suburban areas. On the other hand, some citizens in suburban residential areas are interested in agriculture. Ways must be considered to get these citizens involved in agriculture. For this purpose, it is necessary to consider various factors such as initial investments, cultivation training, farmland conditions and sales conditions. It is difficult for single citizen to start farming alone. That is why we founded a civil agriculture organization. After five years of experience and verification, various conditions have been indicated. It is also shown how they negotiated with town officials and local farmers. Once the operation of the civil farming organization is stabilized, members of the organization began to develop their own agricultural technic. Each member has a different purpose related to agriculture. In this way, we have come to understand the various roles and issues of civil agricultural organization. Here are the records and achievements of the activity of the organization.

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  • Koki Ohira, Yoshiko Tsuruta
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 338-345
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    This study examines the land use system in land zone under the Danish Planning Law and amendments to the Law, which was revised in June 2017. According to the Law, land zones are zones other than urban or summer cottage zones, and their development requires a “land zone permit.” In the 2017 revision to the Law, development permission in land zones was deregulated, and the concept of a conversion village was introduced. This concept was put forth to make the land zones more attractive to live in. Development is not expected in a conversion village; rather, it is intended to be a sustainable village. Therefore, a new, different system that is formulated for development is necessary.

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  • Gai Suzuki, Akira Maruoka, Toshiya Matsukawa, Bumpei Nakade
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 346-353
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    This study aims to understand how much public transportation has been secured for Urbanization Promotion Area based on Article 8, Paragraph 1, Item 2 of the Ordinance for Enforcement of the City Planning Act and to give suggestions on the way of public transportation in the area. For 6 case study cities, we reproduce the expansion situation of the Urbanization Promotion Area and the transition of the public transportation network and understand through interviews the reason why the area without public transportation is designated as the Urbanization Promotion Area. As a result, we show that the designation of Urbanization Promotion Area in each city has not depended solely on the conditions of public transport network, and suggest that transportation nodes such as bus terminals should be properly established at suburban areas to treat the population growth and the change of urban function.

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  • Kunio Yamaguchi
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 354-361
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    In order to shape compact city, institution of location normalization plan was established in 2014 and introduced notification-advice system. This paper aims to clarify the actual results and issues of notification-advice system on the plan in the initial operational stage. The analysis of nationwide questionnaire to local governments and a case study show followings, 1) Results of consultation between local government officials and developers are few achievements, 2) The amount of facilities to be guided is greater in outside of the induction area than in inside that area, 3) The evaluation of the notification-advice system of this plan is lower than that of other plans, 4) Kagoshima City, which is a case study city, is actively consulting, but the results have not been achieved, and 5) From the operational results of the notification-advice system, strengthening the effectiveness of locational induction will be an issue.

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  • Focus on Exception Measures of Land Use Adjustment in Exclude from Area of the Land for Agricultural Use and Development Permit System
    Toshiya Matsukawa, Bumpei Nakade
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 362-369
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    This study focuses on Exception Measures of Land Use Adjustment in Development Permission System and Exclude from Area of the Land for Agricultural Use by Act on Strengthening a Framework for Regional Growth and Development by Promoting Regional Economy Advancement Projects. We clarify the following. 1) The Exception Measures of this Act is used by same logic as Land Use Plan for Revitalization of Farming Village, 2) Master Plan of Land Use Plan is formulated after decided development by Exception Measures of this Act, 3) The development by Exception Measures of this Act impacts operations of Urban Facility Location Plan System.

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  • Long-term re-evaluation of Community Renovation Grants
    Akane Katayama, Masahiko Kikuchi, Keigo Okano, Mamoru Taniguchi
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 370-376
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Since the 2000s, “target management evaluation systems” have been introduced into the Japanese public sector, including the urban planning field. Although these evaluation systems are short-term, some studies in other fields have indicated some long-term problems of evaluation systems. To assess difficulties of this evaluation system in urban planning field, this study examines issues by re-evaluating past evaluations from a long-term perspective. Using past evaluation of Community Renovation Grants as a case study, we measured long-term evaluation indicators. The results demonstrated that long-term evaluation outcomes showed no similar tendency to those of short-term evaluation systems, and demonstrated that long-term planning management is necessary.

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  • Tatsuru Shibata, Yasunori Muromachi, Cao Xuehui
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 377-384
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    In this study, although there is a limit of 20m or less to the picture target, we developed the smartphone camera application that can obtain the distance to the picture target, that is, the location information of the picture target together with the location and picture direction of the photographer. We also conducted a survey using the photograph projection method using the application to confirm the functions. In addition, it was shown that the information obtained by the application could be easily expressed on the GIS map. Finally, by utilizing the location information of the picture target and the model, the picture target and its evaluation data could be better related, indicating the usefulness of the application.

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  • Psychological experiment using multiple maps with different color schemes and classification methods
    Mayuko Yamane, Mamoru Amemiya, Mayu Shirakawa, Tomoya Ohyama, Takahito ...
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 385-392
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    It is recommended to adopt kernel density maps (KD maps) to crime mapping on Japanese prefectual police's websites. Although visual impression of maps differs dependeing on the combination of color scheme and classification method, the appropriate combination has not been clarified. In this research, we surveyed the map representation in crime maps of the prefectual polices in Japan and identified the effects of the color scheme / classification method of KD maps on the location estimation of crime hotspots and the estimation of crime occurrence frequency by two experiments. As a result of the experiments, it was found that estimation of crime hotspots would be inaccurate and estimation of frequency of crime would be overestimated in the case of using the quantile classification. Based on the result, we discussed matters to be noted when designing crime maps using kernel density estimation.

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  • Yuto Watashi, Masato Sano, Tsutomu Suzuki, Yoshiaki Ohsawa
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 393-399
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Off-grid is a power system that is completely separated from power grid of electric companies. When introducing it into a local region, a trade-off between maintenance cost of power grid and the number of involved users arises. The purpose of this paper is to find the optimal off-grid solution considering the influence of a power supply’s position. Firstly, we assume a simple regional condition and analyze the basic structure of off-grid based on the position of power supply and buildings through the linear models. Secondly, we propose a high-speed processing algorithm and reveal that the optimal off-grid region has a nested structure with network models. Finally, we apply this algorithm to the real electric poles and buildings data in Tsukuba city.

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  • Facing an Era of Drone Delivery
    Daisuke Shimotsu, Norimitsu Ishii, Yoshiaki Ohsawa
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 400-406
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Drone delivery is expected to be may useful logistics transportation. We focus on the air space charges which apply to the air space above private sites. The purpose of this paper is to establish the fundamental system on air space fares for drone delivery by analyzing how long and how many drones cross private sites. Using the knowledge of the random line of integral geometry, we examine the effect of area ratio of the sites and the shape of the study area on the expectations of crossing number and length by drone flight route on lattice study areas. In particular, we propose the usefulness of using fixed charges and variable charges properly at the urban area and the rural area by examining the analytical solutions of the correlation coefficients between crossing number and length.

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  • Alternating distance measures to public facilities and density measures of commercial facilities
    Hisatoshi Ai
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 407-414
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Living Environment Score (LES) is an index designed to evaluate the living environment factors of local communities from the standing point that whether the area can attract residents to move into the area. LES is calculated from 13 factors such as accessibility to railway stations, public facilities, shops and offices, landform, land use, and residents’ characteristics. The performance of LES can be evaluated by the hit rate indicating the portion of areas experiencing population increase among areas with high LES. In this paper, we discuss whether we can improve the hit rate by alternating accessibility indices from the distance between the area edge and the facility location to the distance between the area centroid and the facility location. We also alternate the factor regarding the shop and office counts with their densities. Following the earlier studies, we calculate LES for younger and productive generations respectively and discuss whether the proposed method can improve the hit rate.

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  • with a Study of a Metropolitan Suburb
    Shunichiro Yoshitake
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 415-421
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    The aim of this paper is to consider the possibility to utilize population and household projections by subregion as a method for urban revitalization in an era of urban shrinkage. The cohort -factor method and the cohort-change rate method are popular methods, but both have problem of parameter instability. For handling of this problem, it is effective to narrow down subregions as subject of projections by the perspective of population, tenure of dwelling, and type of building. And in order to revitalize subregions of which population is declining, it is important to calculate the increase of vacant houses and vacant lots on each subregions in 20 years, by estimating changes of family members and family type of household with declining and aging of population.

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  • Analysis of Changes in Population by 987 Local Governments Nationwide Using Local Livabirity Survey Data
    So Takeshi
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 422-427
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Japan’s population is decreasing, and there is a fierce competition among different municipalities for residents. However, it is not always clear what kind of policy will lead to population growth. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between results data, obtained through a resident satisfaction survey targeting approximately 180,000 people, and population data taken from basic resident registries. The results of this analysis are as follows. There was a strong correlation between resident satisfaction and population change. Each of the factors “image”, “friendliness” and “lifestyle convenience” was positively correlated with population growth, while the factors “quietness/security” and “nature/sightseeing destination” were negatively correlated. “Cost of living”, “convenience of transportation” and “public services” on the other hand, exhibited no significant relationship.

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  • Street network analysis attributing topography, age-class and means of transportation
    Yu Ito, Kotaro Imai, Kentaro Honma
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 428-434
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Hilly residential areas in Nagasaki city have issues provoked by the complex street structure with steep slopes and staircases that affect urban planning and daily lives of local residents due to its low accessibility. Thus, this paper provides a method of evaluation and improvement plans to increase accessibility, which contribute to the actual urban planning for sustainable development. More specifically, first, we measure the duration between origin and destination for various movement patterns in street network systems, including topography, age-group and means of transportation as accessibility indices to classify disparities caused by factors such as differences in walking ability between non-elderly and elderly. Second, the study estimates changes in accessibility with the facing future aging population. Furthermore, we propose improvement plans as well as verifying the effects based on results of current condition analysis.

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  • A case study with spatial autocorrelation analysis
    Ikuho Yamada
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 435-442
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    This study investigated potential influence that use of spatial data that were obtained through a sample survey would have on spatial analysis based on statistical simulations. In the simulations, spatial patterns with clusters of high attribute values were stochastically generated and analyzed using the population data as well as sample data so as to assess if and how results of the analyses with the two types of data would differ from each other. The spatial analysis method used here was the local Moran statistic. Results suggested that occurrence of type I errors was not much affected by the difference of the data types. On the other hand, the statistical power of cluster detection was found to decrease as the sampling rate of the sample data decreased. In addition, this tendency was more critical near the border of the simulated clusters, implying that shapes of the clusters were difficult to accurately determine with the sample data.

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  • Shigeki Toriumi, Hiroki Omori
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 443-450
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    In recent years, the number of vulnerable shopping people who have difficulty accessing fresh food stores has increased. This problem is called the food dessert problem. Mobile supermarkets are one of the ways to solve the food dessert problem. In this study, we investigate mobile supermarkets in Hitachi City, Ibaraki Prefecture. Next, we analyze the food desert area using metabolic equivalent distance considering road gradient. Then, we find the efficient traveling route of the mobile supermarket using a mathematical model. As a result, it became clear that the total travel distance can be reduced by about 30 km in one week. The results of this research will greatly contribute to evaluate for sustainability of the mobile supermarket business.

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  • Case Study Mainly Around Shibuya Station
    Shungo Noji, Tatsuya Kishimoto
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 451-458
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Recently, there have been a number of services that utilize Artificial Intelligence and it resulted in development of new image recognition systems. However, there are few researches that analyze geographic features in urban street space with photographs directly taken there and face recognition system using Artificial Intelligence. We made a research analyzing pedestrians’ activities mainly in Shibuya. As a result of our research, we revealed the feature of urban street space mainly in Shibuya in terms of people`s age, gender, emotion and density. This result can be used to make better urban city design and shows the effectiveness of this new way of monitoring feature of people in a certain street space.

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  • Minimization of Land Compensation for Large-Scale Drone Airway Networks
    Shota Tabata, Takatoshi Arai, Kentaro Homma, Kotaro Imai
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 459-466
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    This study develops a heuristic for the weighted Steiner tree problem, which is the minimization problem for the total edge cost of the graph interconnecting each terminal on a plane. This heuristic discretizes a plane by using a random Delaunay network and searches terminals’ spanning trees in a terminals’ Voronoi dual graph. Each edge on a tree is given by the weighted shortest path on a random Delaunay network. We show that this heuristic can get a closer result to the exact solution from the perspective of the tree shape and total cost than previous methods, and understand discontinuous changes in the tree shape due to weight changes. For the practicality verification of this heuristic, we apply it to the airway network of large-scale drones, which are poised to become a new passenger and logistics industry.

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  • Kazuki Tanno, Ken-ichi Tanaka
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 467-474
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    This paper focuses on the behavior of people on a network who stop by at a facility on the way to destination, and proposes the problem of locating facilities so that the total number of facility users is maximized. We focus on the fact that the cost of using a facility increases as the number of users at the facility increases. We assume that travelers either use a facility which minimizes the sum of travel time to and from the facility and cost of using a facility, or travelers do not use any facility when the cost of using a facility is more than the prespecified level. The proposed model is formulated as a bilevel optimization problem that includes user-equilibrium sub-problems. We devise a heuristic solution method for finding the local optimal facility location.

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  • Characteristics of population migrations and freight flow
    Yudai Honma, Atsushi Shirahama
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 475-481
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    In this paper, we proposed a new clustering method to estimate exchange areas from the observed regional flow matrix. In particular, we incorporated not only the average value of intra-flow but also that of inter-flow, and described a overlapped structure of exchange areas. Though our formulation became quadratic and fractional programming, we succeeded in solving the optimal solutions using a solver for constraint programming. We applied the model to population migrations and clarified how the overlapped area increased as time elapsed. We also calculated the results for freight flows and examined how freight types affect the characteristics of exchange areas.

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  • A Case Study of Hyogo Special Designated Area System
    Akiyo Tanaka
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 482-489
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Based on the status of area designation and development permits and building permits of 13 local governments that utilize the special designated area system of Hyogo Prefecture, We clarified the evaluation of area designation associated with the relaxation of land use regulations in urbanization control areas. As a result, The flexible institutional design that accepts U-turn residents of child generations without land ownership has been successful, and the number of people moving into the area has increased rapidly. However, The actual number of building permits is overwhelmingly "the residential area for relatives" and the number of building permits for the "residential area for new residents" is small. Even if a menu is prepared for deregulation of land use, If a new community is not familiar with the local community, The new resident will not be able to move to the place of residence.

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  • Focusing on the relationship between Urban Function Induction Area and Zoning
    Tetsuya Watanabe, Akira Maruoka, Toshiya Matsukawa, Bumpei Nakade
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 490-497
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    This study targets local cities making Urban Facility Location Plan, and aims to clarify the background of designating the strict zoning area as Urban Function Induction Area, and to give suggestions to designate the area. As a result of analysis and hearing survey of 8 case study cities based on the location of the facilities, we clarify that the reason why designating the strict zoning areas is that the facilities being able to located in those zoning are made as the guided facilities. In addition, there are cases where the strict zoning area is designated as Induction Area because the location could be used in the future. Strict zoning areas should only be included in the induction area if there is a facility that can be used for wide area or if it is likely to be used in the future.

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  • A Case Study of Decentralized Energy System in Downtown Tokyo
    Risa Tozuka, Miki Muraki
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 498-504
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Small scale office buildings located in downtown Tokyo are weak for business continuity; particularly power is an issue. The central government has promoted decentralized energy system, however, it is unclear how to install it in those districts. The purpose of this study is to clarify decentralized energy systems into the area with small scale office buildings at the urban regeneration stages. The paper firstly studies installation of decentralized energy system at the building renewal, followed by the analysis of its effectiveness for disaster prevention and project feasibility. As a result, it is identified that decentralized energy system can bring an evasion effect for business suspensions to some extent, however, grant support has required to cover cost of fuel cells.

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  • Targeting Iwaki City Fukushima Prefecture Where the Population Has Increased
    Mitsuhiro Saito
    Type: An Article on Planning, Design and Project, A Report on Planning, A Report of Survey
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 505-512
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the changes in city where the population has increased by accepting evacuees due to Fukushima No.1 Nuclear Power Plant accident. In particular, it is to clarify changes of number of all and industries establishment in small area and district in the city. As the result of survey and analysis, firstly, total number of establishment that has decreased after 1991 changes to increase after the earthquake. And analyzing this change by industry, the establishment of construction and accommodation and restaurant and so on are changing from decrease tendency to increase. Furthermore, the small areas where the number of establishment are increasing remarkably, located along main road and be regulated by zoning of urban planning as residential area and so on. In particular, Taira small area and Onahama small area those are located to central urban area in Iwaki city have different results of increase and decrease. And number of establishments are increasing in suburb areas of the both areas. So it is necessary to guide urban functions and housing while building relationships with population changes.

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  • Keishi Tanimoto, Satoshi Tsuchiya, Madoka Chosokabe
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 513-520
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Life support services such as public transportation and retail is needed for our daily life. It is expected that the number of the consumers who use the services will decrease due to the population decrease. Therefore, it is necessary for the municipalities to make policies to maintain the services. If the sustainability of the services can be assessed, it is helpful for them to decide when such a policy should be made and which service should be the target. In this study, we evaluate the sustainability of the services using generalized linear model. The sociodemographic factors which affect the sustainability such as the number of the population and population density is specified and the regression model which predicts the number of the business establishments for each service is derived.

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  • Focusing on the Spatial Character
    Keita Motomura, Akira Maruoka, Toshiya Matsukawa, Bumpei Nakade
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 521-528
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    In this study, we focus on areas outside Residential Promotion Area, targeting Area-divided local cities making Urban Facility Location Plan, and aims to clarify the making process of the plan and to give suggestions on how to designate Residential Promotion Area in the future. We classify the target cities using the ratio of the inside and outside of Residential Promotion Area to both the original Urbanization Promotion Area and the extended one. Then, we analyze the spatial characteristics from the viewpoint of public transport, infrastructure development and population density, and select 6 detailed target cities. From the analysis and interview survey, we find the following points. 1) Residential Promotion Area should be designated after selecting from various viewpoints centering one index. 2) It should not include places where there is a high risk of disaster, and it is desirable to designate the area based on the location of existing urban areas and the status of land use.

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  • Case Study of Benefit Principle for the Administrative Service
    Masahiro Takano, Miki Muraki
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 529-536
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    Sustainable city management is highly required because of declining revenues due to depopulation and aged society in recent Japan. To tackle these issues, the Compact City has been strongly promoted, because it is expected to reduce their financial burden from the perspective of improving administrative service efficiency. Because a huge amount of cost for withdrawal is expected to promote compact city, local municipalities have required to consider either compactness of the city and reducing the financial burden, but the way of this is not clear. The purpose of this study is to clarify how Compact City policy should be for sustainable city management. From the analysis, we reconsidered the burden for administrative services according to the location based on the benefit principle. As a consequence, we identified the possibility to promote both the Compact City and reduction of the financial burden at same time.

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  • Akishige Nakamura, Masatoshi Hasegawa, Toshiyuki Nakamura, Toshiyuki Y ...
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 537-544
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    In many local cities in Japan, securing a means of transport for the elderly is an issue. Therefore, local governments operate the community buses. However, it is difficult to achieve sustainable public transport on a uniform basis because the geographical features and traffic service conditions vary from region to region. In this study, a questionnaire survey on travel behavior was conducted in Kota-cho, Aichi prefecture. We focused on the visiting facilities including the location, the purpose of the visit, travel mode and frequency of the visit, and analyzed the relationships between the districts. The results clarified the main hubs in Kota-cho and the districts separated from the surroundings of Kota-cho. These obtained results are expected to contribute to the restructuring of the route schedule of community buses and an index when planning new community bus operation plans.

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  • Case study of Thailand
    Mihoko Matsuyuki, Kittima Leeruttanawisut
    Type: An Article on Planning, Design and Project, A Report on Planning, A Report of Survey
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 545-552
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    This study aims to identify the situation of urban shrinkage, that is population decline in cities in Thailand. From the analysis of population data, in these 20 years, provinces and cities in Bangkok Metropolis, excluding Bangkok, Eastern Seaboard industrial area and resort area in Southern region has gained population. On the other hand, provinces and cities in Northern and central region have lost its population. Now more than half cities, especially small and medium size cities, has lost its population. From case study of three depopulation cities, we found that local governments face problems of dependence on foreign labors and succession of techniques to Thai people, and decrease of revenue.

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  • Criticism from a metropolitan planning perspective
    Hiroki Shimizu, Masaki Ito, Keigo Okano, Mamoru Taniguchi
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 553-560
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    In recent years, new urban difficulties have arisen in Japan, such as vacant houses and financial crises, exacerbated by the declining and aging population. Not merely municipal difficulties, these represent wider regional issues. However, because regional differences can delay progress in resolving such issues, we have been unable to address them through wider-area cooperation. To clarify regional differences in the progress that has been made in resolving these issues, this study specifically examined metropolitan employment areas to elucidate their actual progress on urban issues attributable to population decline and aging, as well as recent trends. Results demonstrate that the urban issues in question show a cascade effect of increasing severity, with sequential deterioration in all municipalities. Results also show that particularly small municipalities within the metropolitan area tend to be in a better position than others.

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  • Tetsuji Sato, Yuki Hara, Ayaka Nagoshi
    Type: research-article
    2020 Volume 55 Issue 3 Pages 561-568
    Published: October 25, 2020
    Released: October 25, 2020
    JOURNALS OPEN ACCESS

    In this paper, we conducted a questionnaire survey for 247 city governments which published the location normalization plan in Japan and investigated whether they implement or consider any specific residential induction measures based on the plan. The results indicate that while about 30% of the cities are considering residential induction measures for the residential promotion area, the number of cities which consider population decreasing measures for outside the residential promotion area or implement the induction measures is small. We also analyzed the effect of the residential induction measure to the downtown area which started in 2005 in Toyama city using time-series district population data with the differences in differences method and the propensity score matching (DID-PSM). As a result, it is indicated that the measure has brought no significant effect on district population by 2019.

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