Journal of Rainwater Catchment Systems
Online ISSN : 2186-6228
Print ISSN : 1343-8646
ISSN-L : 1343-8646
Volume 6 , Issue 2
Showing 1-19 articles out of 19 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages Cover2-
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages App2-
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
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  • [in Japanese]
    Type: Article
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages i-
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
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  • Type: Index
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages Toc2-
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
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  • Ken Hiramatsu, Eiji Ichion, Toshihiko Kawachi, Junichiro Takeuchi
    Type: Article
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 1-5
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Contamination of groundwater due to non-point source, e. g., excessive fertilizer use in farming, is becoming a serious problem in many parts of the world. Quality of groundwater is often monitored at wells for its appropriate management. However, methodologies to identify the incoming flux values inversely from the monitored data are not completely established yet and still developing. In this research, three types of the identification methods, i. e., artificial neural network (ANN), lumped genetic algorithm (LGA) and iterative genetic algorithm (IGA) methods are presented and their applicabilities, convergencies and accuracies are discussed. Through the demonstrative applications, it is found that all the models possess quite satisfactory abilities of the identification. The IGA method shows better performance especially in the spatiotemporal problems, the LGA method requires less computational burden and the ANN method is useful in the problems without initial conditions. As a result, all these methods are expected to contribute to the management of groundwater quality.
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  • Hideto Fujii, Hirohide Kiri, Tetsuo Nakaya
    Type: Article
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 7-13
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
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    Flood discharge is prone to increase year by year due to the urbanization in the basin. In this study, the Imba Marsh basin, where rapid urbanization has occurred during past 30 years, is selected and the effects of land-use change on flood runoff characteristics in the basin is investigated to evaluate the change of the flood mitigation function, caused by the decline in agricultural and forest lands. The following findings are obtained through this investigation ; 1) The maximum water level of Imba marsh during floods is higher in periods B (1979-1988) and C (1989-1997) than in period A (1969-1978), and 2) In the case of 3-day continuous rainfall of 278 mm that is the design flood rainfall, 2.65 million m^3 flood water increase is caused by the decline in agricultural and forest lands during the 20 years. The 1 ha decrease in agricultural or forest land results in the 360 m^3 increase in flood water.
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  • Shigeya Maeda, Toshihiko Kawachi, Alok Kumar, Takeo Maruyama, Shinzou ...
    Type: Article
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 15-20
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
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    A method of identifying regions with relatively high and low natural groundwater recharge potential in a recharge area is developed using GIS technique. Annual precipitation, annual surface runoff and annual evapotranspiration are regarded as influencing factors to groundwater recharge by considering water balance in each spatial unit. Estimation of distributed values of these factors, which are converted to scores ranging within 0 through 1, is performed with easily available data. This method is successfully applied to Yasu river basin, Shiga Prefecture, Japan, revealing two facts : (1) paddy fields play an important role to recharge groundwater ; and (2) change of land use during the period of 1965 to 1995 has increased the area with low recharge by almost 40%.
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  • Masayuki Fujihara, Shinako Kinoshita, Tadao Fukushima
    Type: Article
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 21-26
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
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    This paper deals with an application of a second order accurate Godunov-type numerical model of the two-dimensional shallow water equations discretized using finite volumes to the flow in a vertical slot fishway, which has vertical slots along the center of flume. Roe's scheme is used for the convection terms and a non-linear slope limiter is applied to prevent non-physical oscillations. Comparing the numerical results with the results of hydraulic model experiments, it is found that the numerical model well reproduces flow patterns and water depth distributions as a whole. However there are discrepancies between computed and measured water depths just at the downstream of slots, where the vertical acceleration is dominant. The numerical experiments further confirm that the velocity in the slot and the difference in water level between two adjacent pools are almost independent of the discharge.
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  • Hitone Inagaki, Yasuhiro Akiyoshi, Yoshihiro Yamamura, Takefumi Nakazo ...
    Type: Article
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 27-37
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
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    When constructing a semi-closed pipeline system utilizing float valves such as a disk valve, the scale of the pressure regulating facilities is usually designed to ensure sufficient diffusion capacity for stilling a jet from a valve. In a system that applies only pressure reduction to paddy field division work with no farm ponds on the downstream side of the pressure regulating facilities, operation of a valve at the downstream end of the division work has been reported to cause excess water hammer pressure on the upstream side of the pressure regulating facilities, partially due to the insufficient scale of the pressure regulating facilities. By using a mathematical model employing a liquid-level control mechanism as a disk valve float, the authors simulate flow in a semi-closed pipeline to determine the necessary scale of pressure regulating facilities and investigate the occurrence of a water hammer. Results of the simulation clarify the following points : 1) If pressure regulating facilitiy with only a diffusion capacity is used at every division without farm ponds, closing a valve downstream produces a water hammer. This pressure propagates upstream passing through the pressure regulating facilitiy and causes excess water hammer pressure. 2) To suppress this upstreamward pressure propagation, capacity of "2 minutes × design discharge" at the very least should be provided at pressure regulating facilities.
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  • Tadao Fukushima, Junsheng Gao, Masayuki Fujihara
    Type: Article
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 39-42
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
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    Developing hydraulic facilities of self-reliant type is an important research topic since the environmental aspects in water resources engineering have become urgent consideration. This paper deals with a selective intake from middle-high water flow in a small river, and a novel fan-shaped settling basin is proposed. Water is introduced to the settling basin from an intake weir and is withdrawn via a bell-shaped surface water intake. The hydraulic structure of this settling basin intends to prevent sedimentation in an attached reservoir when the water is taken from middle-high water flow. The soil particle distribution in the settling basin is calculated under a steady flow condition, where the water flow into the settling basin is highly turbid, and high performance of the surface water intake is demonstrated.
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  • Yasunori Kamii, Osamu Miyawaki, Kunihide Chikamori
    Type: Article
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 43-48
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Yearly and monthly probabilistic precipitations at 53 observatories in Japan are analized by cluster analysis. The yearly and monthly data analysed are of the stations which have data for more than 98 years. They are placed in ascending order and converted to probablistic precipitations by Weibll plotting position, i. e., the return period T is calculated by the formula ; T = i/(N + 1) (i : order number of the data arranged in ascending magnitude, N : number of data(years)). Firstly, six different clustering methodologies, namely, nearest neighbor method, furthest neighbor method, group average method, centroid method, median method and Ward method are applied to yearly probabilistic precipitation. Among these six methods, the nearest neighbor method gives a different dendrogram from others and among the rest, the furthest neighbor method seems to give a reasonable result from the point of view of ascending order magnitude of the clusters. By applying this method, it is found that the clustered districts do not coincide with such stereotyped geographical or meteorological districts as Hokkaido, Tohoku, Kanto, Hokuriku, Chubu, Tokai, Kinki, Chugoku, Shikoku, or Sanin, Setouchi, Nankai and Kyushu. Secondly, monthly probabilistic precipitations are analized by this method. The characteristics of precipitation, obtained from these cluster analyses, seem to provide useful information for rainfall utilization purposes.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 49-50
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
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  • Type: Appendix
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 51-
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
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  • Type: Appendix
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 52-54
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
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  • Type: Appendix
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 54-
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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  • Type: Appendix
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 54-
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Download PDF (109K)
  • Tadao Fukushima, Toshihiko Kawachi
    Type: Article
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 55-56
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Instructions are given to prepare the manuscript of an English paper submitted to the Journal of Rainwater Catchment Systems. Being a model in itself, the document demonstratively prescribes the layout of the manuscript. Manuscripts should be typed on one side of white A4 size paper when they are submitted. Accepted manuscripts will be off-set printed. Titles of papers, names and affiliations of authors, abstracts, main texts, headings, references, equations, mathematical symbols, captions of figures and tables and so on should be in specified fonts. All references cited should be collected together at the end of the paper. Figures and Tables with their captions should be placed appropriately.
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  • Tadao Fukushima, Toshihiko Kawachi
    Type: Article
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 57-58
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
    Instructions are given to prepare the manuscript of a Japanese paper submitted to the Journal of Rainwater Catchment Systems. Being a model in itself, the document demonstratively prescribes the layout of the manuscript. Manuscripts should be typed on one side of white A4 size paper when they are submitted. Accepted manuscripts will be off-set printed. Titles of papers, names and affiliations of authors, abstracts, main texts, headings, references, equations, mathematical symbols, captions of figures and tables and so on should be in specified fonts. All references cited should be collected together at the end of the paper. Figures and Tables with their captions should be placed appropriately.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2001 Volume 6 Issue 2 Pages 59-
    Published: 2001
    Released: September 13, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS
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