In order to ascertain future issues in the Japanese foster care, the present study reviewed psychological research on foster care. Future issues were ascertained by analyzing domestic and foreign studies on the following five topics: “psychological characteristics of foster children”, “risks associated with foster care”, “factors involved in adjusting to foster care”, “community-based foster care” and “family reintegration”. In Japan, there are movements to promote foster care, but it is necessary to take into account the risks for discontinuing foster care and the severity of psychological problems experienced by foster children. Moreover, in order to expand foster care, it will be necessary to develop foster care supporters, cooperate with regional medical and education organizations, and provide foster care in close collaboration with the community. In future research, it will be necessary to combine the opinions of specialists, non-specialists, the private sector, and government, and establish foster care unique to Japan.