This survey was conducted with people aged 50 years and above,who were participating in volunteer activities in Japan. A questionnaire was consisted of three scales: Volunteer Functions Inventory (VFI), Volunteer Continuation Scale(VCS) and Volunteer Perceiving Results Scale(VPRS). Results of factor analysis of VFI identified three factors. VFI for Middle Aged and Elderly(VFI-MAE) was newly constructed based on the original version of VFI. Covariance structure analysis was conducted to examine the correlation among motives for participation,continuation of volunteer activities and the participants’ perception of the results of such activities. Results indicated that participating in volunteer activities and perceiving results motivated continuation of such activities by those people. Furthermore,it was suggested that the higher was their motivation to participate,the more they were motivated to continue to activities. Finally,it was discussed that this study was useful in promoting volunteer activities by those people.
The purpose of this study was to develop a new school based parenting program and to evaluate its effects. A provisional program was developed based on a review of the research literature and an analysis of other nurturance and parenting programs. The program was improved based on the results of a three-stage pilot, as well as on quantitative data of nurturance and social parenting. Finally, in the fourth stage, ‘The Development Education Program (DEP)’ was completed. In Study 1, DEP was conducted with 75, third year public junior high school students. To identify the effects of nurturance and social parenting, an experimental Group A and a control Group B were experimentally compared, and moreover, characteristics of Group B were separately analyzed. Results indicated that as the scores for negative attitudes about nurturance and social care about social parenting increased the score for indifference about social parenting decreased. In the second study, to evaluate the program,a semi-structured interview was conducted with the principal, a guest speaker and three teachers. Results indicated the following significant effects of the program: Increased self-understanding and feelings of freedom, expanded horizons, and improvements of teachers. It is suggested that future research should investigate cooperation between school counselors and teachers, as well as methods of continuing the program.