Effects of problems in relationships between mothers and painful experiences in past interpersonal relationships and their recollections on present relationships with other mothers were examined in mothers who are rearing children. An online survey was conducted with mothers (N = 300) with children. The participants were classified into the following groups depending on scores on the object relations subscales and analyzed: Interpersonal seeking/self-centered group, Interpersonal avoidance/anxiety group, Balanced group, and Ambivalent group. The results indicated that Interpersonal seeking/self-centered group, Interpersonal avoidance/anxiety group, and Ambivalent groups recollected past hurtful experiences when they had problems in relationships with other mothers. Furthermore, recollection of past hurtful experiences affected defensive attitudes in fellow-mam relationships in the Ambivalent group, whereas problems in relationships between mothers and past hurtful experiences directly affected defensive attitudes of the Balanced group, without any mediation by recollections.
The influence of psychological support from school consultants on teachers' sense of consultation effectiveness was investigated. An instrument to measure teachers' perceptions of psychological support from school consultants was developed. Secondary school teachers (M=236, 135 men and 101 women) participated in a survey in which they responded to the scale. Exploratory factor analysis of the responses indicated that the scale comprised two factors: instrumental support and emotional support. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the two-factor model provided the best fit indices. Moreover, each factor had a high coeffrcient alpha indicative ofits reliability. Regression analysis indicated that each factor sufficiently explained teachers' sense of consultation effectiveness. Limitations of the study and directions for future research are discussed.
The number of early career elementary school counselors is steadily increasing. As an elementary school counselor, it is vital to have a thorough understanding of the school resources based on community approach. Such resources are regarded as the empowerment of school. In this study, we have examined the contents of school resources as the empowerment of school that they have employed and have taken school size into consideration.
Ten individuals participated in qualitative interviews that were analyzed using type III quantification methods. All individuals had less than five years of experience in their schools.
Results indicated that the school counselors mentioned “the strength of the various faculty members” as the most frequently utilized school resource. Also, the numbers of resources detected in each school were approximately the same in all cases regardless of school size. However, how easily the school resources were identified largely depended on school size. At smaller-sized schools, school counselors tend to use relationships with the guardians and faculty members, on the other hand, at mid-sized schools, they tend to make use of the school's customs and activities.
Consequently, we have considered the early career elementary school counselor's points ofview to utilize school resources and suggested the difference of school mental health supports depending on school size.
Community sports clubs can provide children with adequate opportunities to exercise. However, researchers have indicated certain problems faced by such clubs, which are volunteer associations. The present study conducted an internet based survey and inquired coaches in community sport clubs (N=150) about their work as coaches, about the equipment they use, and about the problems they had faced, among others. Results indicated that coaches usually worked voluntarily, that they attempted to communicate positively with children, and maintained the security of children. On the other hand they had difficulties in maintaining appropriate relationships with parents, in dealing with children having difficult personalities, and in dealing with children that are not serious about playing sports. Although the voices of coaches in community sports clubs were greatly identified, there were certain limitations to the study. Because of the small sample size, we cannot compare responses between different kinds of sports and different goals coaches and parents have.