The study of burnout syndrome has not been examined in Japan very closely yet. However, with the increasing number of the elderly and the rise of educational problems, the study of human service professions is in great demand. This article will examine intensively the latest information on the concept of burnout and will take a look at Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the most frequently used measure of burnout. Due to theoretical and methodological problems in Japanese–translated Maslach Burnout Inventory, the conclusions of previous existing research are under question. In particular, the interpersonal relationship between the provider and the recipient has not been sufficiently focused. Some implications for future research in Japan will be discussed.