The first purpose of this research was to develop a community consciousness scale and to grasp the people’s present attitude to their community in Japan. The second purpose was to examine the relationships between community consciousness and the degree of people’s participation in community building by using the developed scale. 27 items related to people’s attitude to community building activities and attachment to their community were collected to constitute the community consciousness scale. A result of factor analysis of those items showed that the community consciousness scale were composed of four factors, “solidarity”, “self-determination”, “attachment”, and “dependency on others.” The “self-determination” was a factor which had not been found out in previous researches in Japan. That the factor was found means people think citizen’s participation in decision making about community building was very important. Correlation analyses of community consciousness and people’s participation in community building showed that “solidarity”, “self-determination”, and “attachment” were positively correlated to the degree of participation in community building activities and volunteer activities. On the other hand, “dependency on others” was negatively correlated with them. These results showed that community consciousness was related to the motivation of people’s participation in community building.
This study aims to grasp the consciousness of immigrant students’ families, former students, and local residents, through the tasks of studying in a mountain village. We conducted not only questionnaire surveys of members of the Parent-Teacher Association (PTA), students, and former students who participated in studying in a mountain village, but also interviews of urban students’ mothers. Many of the immigrant students and their PTA members are raising improvements in the environments of education and playing, and yearning for nature as main reasons for studying in a mountain village and school selection. Also, it clarifies that the parents’ idea of bring up children in a place with a rich natural environment and yearning for a mountain village is strongly reflected, not concerned with commuting time or the problem of change of occupation. Therefore, parents’ intentions are the important factors leading to studying in the mountain village and migrating is urged. Many former students and urban students who experienced the life in a mountain village show the intention to live in a mountain village in the future. Four families who are half of the former migrating students’ families are continuing to live in Higashiyoshino Village. So, studying in a mountain village may serve as a cause of migration of city residents. In the future, it is important to prepare the prior consultation system and acceptance organization for studying in mountain villages.