In this paper, the author indicated new views about two subjects mentioned below about the developments in ancient Naniwa region. The first is concerned with Naniwa Port Site. In the developments in Naniwa region which started in the 5th century, various facilities, clusters of warehouses and factories of manual industry were set up in the Uemachi Upland and surrounding area. As a result, the character as the city was formed in the region toward the capital transfer to Naniwa Palace. Naniwa Port supported the prosperity of Naniwa region as the base for foreign affairs and trade. The author reexamined archaeological materials concerned with presumption about location of Naniwa Port Site in an early stage and newly estimated the historical value. The second is concerned with Naniwa Capital Site. The time when the divisions of land in Naniwa Capital were ormed
after the capital transfer to Naniwa Palace has been currently regarded during Tenmu Emperor’s reign (the fourth quarter in the 7th century). On the other hand, the author indicated a possibility that the time was in the third quarter in the 7th century and considered the historical process that the divisions of land were formed by the developments by the various aims under the influence of the urbanization seen before the transfer and the divisions were remained until the Middle Ages.
The idea of “Multi-capital system,” a national system to establish multiple “To” or “Kyo,” was first proposed in 1967. This opinion has been regarded as self-evident and its rationale has hardly ever been questioned. However, its interpretation has rather been confusing. As several “Miya” had coexisted, “Kyo” had accordingly coexisted, too, since a “Kyo” is a form of a “Miya” with its extended outskirt included. When, however, several “Kyo” coexisted, the place where the Emperor reigned was specifically termed “Koto,” instead of regular “To,” as a means to emphasize his presence. Considering the transition of “Kyo” and “To” from this point of view, the coexistence of capitals is nowhere to be found in history except for the failed attempt by Emperor Tenmu’s in his later years, nor is there any historical materials indicating it to have taken place. The idea of “Multi-capital system” had been attempted for a brief period of time in vain during Tenmu’s era, and was succeeded by no one thereafter.
Masonry was working to Early modern Osaka. Amagishi and Kitarokakushujin made a sketch of the address of masonry. In this paper, based on the statement of accounts of the Osaka guidance, such as the “Naniwamaru” and the “Naniwamarukoumoku”, it is clarified whereabouts not only masonry but the wholesaler of stone, and the distribution map is created. And it is examined the distribution tendency of modern Osaka’s stone industry. This paper clarified the following thing. The dump of a stone being located in the estuary of Aji river and Kizu river, and going via canals from there, stone is conveyed to the stone sholesale stores at Matsuya-cho, Nagajhori 10 chome and Gonemoncho, Nishiyokobori. And the stone were brought to masonry surrounding Higashiyokobori, Nagahori, Nishiyokobori and Sumiyamachi. It was shown that a copper refinery and stone industry are near. The shipping service is very suitable to the copper refinery and stone industry. Many stone wholesale stores appear about the middle of the 18th century, and masonry also increases according to it. Under these circumstances, it is thought that the masonry representing Osaka were born as Kojimaya Hanbei and Mikageya Shinzamuro, whose works spread to all over Japan.